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Frost and Heat Risk Mitigation
for the Grains Sector

Frost and Heat Management Analytics (FAHMA) is a A$9.3m research project designed and led by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) supported by A$6.2m funding from Grains Research & Development Corporation (GRDC), Eratos’ expertise in geospatial data and other parties concerned with heat and frost protection in agriculture. The project has been set up to illustrate how Land Surface Temperature (LST) satellite data and the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), developed by the CSIRO, can better serve primary producers to assess impacts of heat and frost events at high resolution - ultimately improving the profitability of the Australian grains industry.

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Yield loss from frost and heat events in wheat alone is estimated to cost Australian grain growers more than A$500m annually. These events are difficult to predict and quantify, posing challenges for many industry players from insurance to the growers themselves.
Growers need to make informed planting decisions prior to the season, including when to sow, what to sow and where to sow to help mitigate climate risk. Furthermore, if they’re impacted by a mid-season frost or heat event, they should be able to use data to make economically informed decisions on the outcome of the crop; growers can only do this if they understand the full implications and potential yield loss of frost and heat events.
These challenges require fit-for-purpose data sets to be interrogated together to provide near real-time high resolution analytics to help growers manage the impacts of frost and heat. These analytics also need to be readily accessible on one platform, and easy to use and interpret.

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Eratos is a Data Infrastructure Platform solving the way organisations and individuals make informed decisions about the world we live in. Eratos makes finding and accessing disparate data at scale effortless, with interoperability and reusability built into its DNA.


Eratos does this through three products:

  • a data infrastructure platform to make any dataset available in situ (PaaS);

  • a developer environment for Creators to build models, workflows and applications (SaaS); and,

  • a marketplace to publish and share scalable solutions built on top of the platform.


On Eratos, you can access, build, collaborate and share data, models and solutions. Particular focus to date has been on research, education, federal and state government, agriculture, financial services and smart cities.  


A collection of relevant, isolated and disparate data sets and research models have been assembled onto the Eratos platform and, using Senaps (more below), workflows were constructed to operationalise climate risk mitigation solutions.

The land surface temperature (LST) satellite, Himawari, provides topographical temperature mapping of Australia at a paddock-level resolution. This highly complex and valuable data feed has been made available to the project via the Eratos platform. Third-party partners are then able to use the Himawari solution to build applications on top of the Eratos platform for products such as insurance, farm management and data integration workflows 


Models and Machine Learning are incorporated into the solution to provide practical use cases to maximise the ability for growers and industry partners to make informed decisions for specific locations at scale. These models and machine learning algorithms are built, hosted and powered by Eratos.


The image above is an example of a 2km resolution map at a point in time with a cloud-masking algorithm applied, visualising the impact of frost overnight. Raw data is sourced from the Himawari satellite and processed on the Eratos platform. 

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The images above are examples of LST images utilising frost and heat risk modelling and analytics to identify frost and heat risk at a regional, 30km and paddock-level resolution (left to right).

Results and Benefits


  • Primary producers receive real-time notifications of frost and heat events at a paddock level.

  • Improve grower profit via improved decision making on frost and heat risk management.

  • Mitigate the economic loss from frost and heat events.

  • Federated access to data and models creates more opportunities to solve more complex problems.

  • New product development to enable 3rd party developers to build more solutions at scale.

Leveraging AWS to scale solutions


The Eratos Platform utilises Amazon Web Services (AWS) to leverage best in class cloud scaling architecture, including Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS), Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (AWS EKS), Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).

Further information

  • Find out more about the FAHMA product for your business here.

  • Learn more about the Agricultural Productions Systems Simulator (APSIM) here.

  • Learn more about the FAHMA project here.

  • More information about the Senaps platform below:

Senaps is a cloud-based IoT (Internet of Things) management system developed by CSIRO enabling easy delivery of data driven products. Senaps is scalable, secure, efficient and supports the delivery of real-time data and complex analytics from SME's through to Enterprise solutions.


Senaps allows you to connect your sensor network to ingest and work with the related data. Build your own customised workflows, combining multiple datasets, models and outputs.


Eratos has the exclusive licence to commercialise and operate Senaps and it is now a fully integrated component of the Platform.

Combined with the vast catalogue of geospatial data available on the Eratos Platform, you have access to powerful insights and a competitive edge.

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